Skull base surgery may be done to remove both benign and cancerous growths, and abnormalities on the underside of the brain, the skull base, or the top few vertebrae of the spinal column.
During a sympathectomy, a surgeon cuts or clamps a deep nerve that runs up and down along the spine. This prevents nerve signals from passing through it. It is used to treat heavy sweating and certain other conditions.
X-rays use invisible electromagnetic energy beams to make images of internal tissues, bones, and organs on film. Standard X-rays are done for many reasons, including diagnosing tumors or bone injuries.
This procedure may be used to diagnose back or neck pain, fractures or broken bones, arthritis, degeneration of the disks, tumors, or other problems.