Some medical problems can make it hard for you to breathe. In these cases, you might benefit from bilevel positive airway pressure. It is commonly known as “BiPap” or “BPap.” It is a type of ventilator—a device that helps with breathing.

Brain Perfusion Scan

A brain perfusion scan is a type of brain test that shows the amount of blood taken up in certain areas of your brain. This can provide information on how your brain is functioning. There are several different types of brain perfusion scans.

Burr Holes

Burr holes are small holes that a neurosurgeon makes in the skull to help relieve pressure on the brain when fluid, such as blood, builds up and starts to compress brain tissue.

Carotid Artery Duplex Scan

A carotid artery duplex scan is an imaging test to look at how blood flows through the carotid arteries in your neck.

Cerebral Arteriogram

A cerebral arteriogram is a catheter-based exam of the blood vessels in the brain, head, and neck

Cervical Disk Replacement Surgery

Cervical disk replacement surgery involves removing a diseased cervical disk and replacing it with an artificial disk.

Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Brain

Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is an imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to make detailed images of the body. A CT scan shows details of the bones, muscles, fat, and organs.

Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Spine

Computed tomography is an imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to make detailed images of the body. A CT scan shows details of the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than standard X-rays.


A craniotomy is the surgical removal of part of the bone from the skull to expose the brain for surgery. The surgeon uses specialized tools to remove the section of bone (the bone flap). After the brain surgery, the surgeon replaces the bone flap.

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a type of therapy that uses electrical stimulation to treat neurological conditions such as Parkinson disease (PD), essential tremor, and multiple sclerosis. It can ease symptoms and decrease the amount of medications you need, and improve your quality of life.

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

An EEG is a procedure that detects abnormalities in your brain waves, or in the electrical activity of your brain.


Electromyography measures your muscle response or electrical activity in response to a nerve’s stimulation of your muscle. The test is used to help detect neuromuscular abnormalities.

Electronystagmography (ENG)

Electronystagmography (ENG) is a test used to evaluate vertigo and certain other hearing and vision disorders. Vertigo is a false sense of spinning or motion that can cause dizziness.

Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery

Endoscopic endonasal surgery is a minimally invasive technique that allows a surgeon to go through the nose to operate on areas at the front of the brain and the top of the spine.

Endoscopic Pituitary Surgery

The pituitary gland is located at the bottom of your brain and above the inside of your nose. Endoscopic pituitary surgery is the most common surgery used to remove pituitary tumors.

Endovascular Coiling

Endovascular coiling is used to block blood flow to an aneurysm.

Endovascular Neurosurgery and Interventional Neuroradiology

Endovascular neurosurgery is a subspecialty within neurosurgery that uses catheters and radiology to diagnose and treat various conditions and diseases of the central nervous system.


A foraminotomy is a surgery that makes the area around one of your vertebrae larger. The operation relieves pressure on compressed nerves.

Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

Gamma Knife uses very precise beams of gamma rays to treat an area of disease (lesion) or growth (tumor). It’s most often used in the brain.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Wound Healing

Wounds need oxygen to heal properly, and exposing a wound to 100% oxygen can, in many cases, speed the healing process.

Lumbar Disk Replacement

A lumbar disk replacement involves replacing a worn or degenerated disk in the lower part of the spine with an artificial replacement made of metal or a combination of metal and plastic.

Lumbar Puncture

A lumbar puncture (LP) or spinal tap may be done to diagnose or treat a condition.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Spine and Brain

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body, in this case, the brain and spine. MRI is used to help diagnose a health problem.


A myelogram is a diagnostic imaging test generally done by a radiologist. It uses a contrast dye and X-rays or computed tomography (CT) to look for problems in the spinal canal. Problems can develop in the spinal cord, nerve roots, and other tissues. This test is also called myelography.

Nerve Conduction Velocity

A nerve conduction velocity test measures how fast electrical impulses move through your nerves. The test is sued to identify nerve damage.

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